Every Human being constantly processes information during his cognitive activity. Once this information is systematized (generalized), it acquires a new status — now it’s knowledge (“life experience”) of this particular Human being.
That’s why people reflect (“see”, feel) the outside World, and each of them does it in his/her own way (from his/her own “point of view”, “with his/her own eyes”).
Every person admits the existence of only those things he underwent by himself, then thought through, turned over in his mind, thought out, passed through, felt out, created, etc., that is, he cognized and realized something without any assistance.
If a human being did cognize and did realize “something”, then this “something” definitely exists for him!
If a human being didn’t cognize and didn’t realize “something”, then this “something” doesn’t exist for him at all!
All systematized and generalized feelings of a person are his consciousness (memory). There can be nothing more! This is the World of a human being he “lives” in.
P.S. If we imagine a meeting of two people, whose consciousnesses contain completely different information, they will not be able to communicate with each other, since they will have nothing to talk about, because these interlocutors live in “different Worlds” (they perceive the World “with different eyes”).
The modern researchers are actively discussing such concepts as “intellect”, “intelligence”, “artificial intelligence”, “natural intelligence”, “Human intelligence“, etc., but up to this day no one has ever offered an approach to measuring the scale of intelligence of various beings. This article is the first attempt to move in this direction.
I want to pay your attention that there is a slight difference between my terms and the modern scientific ones. From my point of view, it allows us to see cognitive process in a more realistic light …
The MIND is a set of «thinking» abilities of the Brain (a set of Brain Powers), which enable the Body and the Personality of a Human Being to effectively process information during cognition, i.e.:
the maximum amount of data processed;
the maximum data processing speed;
a variety of processed data;
a variety of the methods of information input for further processing;
a variety of the methods of information output after it has been processed;
This set of abilities we call as “capacities of thinking”. People who are able to effectively think, have always been called “thinkers”.
MIND is the objective characteristic (a set of parameters) of an object, which can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
Many objects are able to independently systematize (generalize, comprehend) information about the outside world during cognition. Such information (systematized knowledge) is called «consciousness» of objects, and objects themselves are called «conscious».
CONSCIOUSNESS is the objective characteristic (parameter) of an object. Consciousness can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
But there are objects that we call «creatures». They are able both to systematize information about the outside World and to use their «experience and knowledge» (their consciousness) in their activities.
REASON is the integral ability of Beings to use the accumulated «experience and knowledge» in their activities; it is this ability that distinguishes them from objects which are simply conscious. If the Beings have “reason”, they will possess abilities to analyze, abstract, generalize, logically think …
That is why «creatures» at all times were called “reasonable“, that is experienced, knowledgeable. And their activity was also considered to be “reasonable“.
INTELLIGENCE is a property of an object that characterizes its ability to cognize the World (in the broadest sense of this word) by a heuristic method based on the object’s:
MIND; «thinking» abilities;
CONSCIOUSNESS; the volume of systematized information about the world (the volume of accumulated experience and knowledge):
REASON; ability to fully or partly use consciousness in certain activities.
INTELLECTUAL is the characteristic of a Being with excellent «cogitative» («thinking») abilities, great knowledge and personal experience, which ultimately allows him to take more correct decisions in his activity.
But intellect can also be expressed mathematically as a variable that changes in time and depends on three main variable functions:
Intelligence (t) = f(«thinking» abilities, t) * f(The volume of systematized information or the volume of Consciousness, t) * f(The amount of consciousness used for activities or Reason, t)
I(t) = f(TA, t) * f(C, t) * f(M, t)
I = Intelligence TA = «Thinking» Abilities C = Volume of Consciousness or Volume of Systematized Information M = The Мind or a part of Consciousness used for performing one’s activity t = time
Thus, «intelligence» is the variable in time objective characteristic (parameter) of an object; it can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
P.S. Of course, everything I’ve mentioned above is a very simplified model for defining “intelligence” of any Being. But this model really works. Its effectiveness differs it from all the rest models existing nowadays.
One can imagine a typical thinking process of the human being as a virtual funnel, the walls of which represent his consciousness (all systematized knowledge and experience), and water running along the inner walls of this funnel will represent a thinking process.
The cores of a thinking process during cognition of the World (in the broadest sense of this word) are one`s mind (brainpower) and reason (abilities to use accumulated ‘knowledge and experience’ in one’s activity). But after all, a person who thinks about something and who uses during thinking only own consciousness will never be able to complete creative tasks, since this process already requires abilities that are beyond his personal experience and knowledge, i.e. beyond his ‘funnel’, beyond his consciousness.
The standard algorithm of the brain functioning that is conventionally called “water logic” presupposes during thinking a constant interaction of one`s mind, reason and consciousness. The term “water logic” means that “water” running along the inner walls of a funnel will always fall into one and the same lower part of it in spite of various other ways for running. In other words, using only own experience and knowledge will always lead to one and the same result in thinking process in the furtherance of any tasks.
There are good reasons why people say that a well-posed question is already half an answer! To pose a question, people use their own accumulated knowledge and experience. But it isn`t enough for creative questions and for creative answers as well.
What are necessary to do for blustering way out of this virtual funnel, i.e. for finding another creative decision?
Many years ago, the theory of solving inventive problems and theory of the development of technical systems were developed exactly for these purposes. The author of these systems is Heinrich Saulovich Altshuller, a science fiction writer, scientist and inventor. These theories demonstrated for the first time that people can develop their inventive abilities, taking into account inventive experience of numerous predecessors, which was tabulated by Henrik Saulowicz on the ‘problem — solving method’ principle. This table also helped many inventors to bluster way out of their ‘funnels’, i.e. to bluster way out of using only their personal experience and knowledge.
What can an inventor do if the tables of Altshuller are not suitable for him, since using them is already impossible to solve inventive tasks in many new fields such as microbiology, quantum physics, research of artificial intelligence, etc.?
In this case, researchers can use the author`s hardware-software Fable Search Engine complex, the functioning principle of which was previously described in one of the articles of this blog. This complex is intended to assist the modern inventors in solving the creative tasks, using another knowledge that, as a rule, isn`t a part of their own consciousnesses (knowledge and experience they have accumulated).
Based on the previously developed functioning principle, the author created Fable Search Engine (FSE), which allows everyone to check this theory and to assure himself of its 100% working efficiency. The functioning principle of FSE is quite simple, but everyone should personally think about the main interaction principles between this engine and the human beings` Personalities. Using this approach, the principles of the Universe will not be defied.
Use your brain, your intelligence… put your brain to good use… think, reckon up in your head, ponder, contemplate, reason for a while, think over … and you will definitely understand the functioning principle of Fable Search Engine. If you don`t fully understand the functioning principle of FSE, then read this article once again from the very beginning.
In this article, the author gives definitions of such notions as consciousness, sub-consciousness, being and entity for any biological or non-biological objects. He also considers these notions in relation to computer systems. Different approaches to objective estimation of various objects’ consciousnesses are also suggested. Besides, the writer offers the way to determine the exact point when a conscious object turns into a being or an entity.
Disputes over the interpretation of such notions as consciousness, subconsciousness and a being have been taking place throughout the history of the so-called modern humankind and provoke people’s interest up to this day. Nowadays these debates have reached their climax.
Scientists from various research centers actively develop different structures (e.g. devices, robots, mechanisms, and so on), which, as they claim, possess artificial intelligence.
So, now – like never before – there is a need to formulate unified terminology and related nomenclature, which will be used within various areas of research, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, biocybernetics, computer systems, etc. It will help modern researchers to find a common language, which, in its turn, will contribute toward development of the technologies that will benefit the whole humankind.
I think that the future of the modern humankind is tightly intertwined with answers to such questions as “What are consciousness and subconsciousness?”, “What is a Being?”
This paper is devoted to finding answers to these questions.
2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
“There is a conceptual gap between science, which stands for objective measurement and the conclusions we can draw thereby, and consciousness, which is a synonym for subjective experience. We obviously cannot simply ask an entity in question, “Are you conscious?” If we look inside its “head,” biological or otherwise, to ascertain that, then we would have to make philosophical assumptions in determining what it is that we are looking for. The question as to whether or not an entity is conscious is therefore not a scientific one. Based on this, some observers go on to question whether consciousness itself has any basis in reality.” Ray Kurzweil
“Proposals have been regularly presented that purport to be scientific theories linking consciousness to some measurable physical attribute — what Searle refers to as the “mechanism for causing consciousness.”  Ray Kurzweil
“As British psychologist and writer Stuart Sutherland (1927–1998) wrote in the International Dictionary of Psychology, “Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon; it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved.”  Ray Kurzweil
I realized that without answering these questions my further research would be difficult for readers understanding, so I devoted this chapter to Ball-a-ball analysis.
Based on the previously developed technologies, the author conducted several virtual experiments coming to interesting results:
The virtual experiment № 1.
The participants of this experiment are:
A meteorological station with its assistants a person observes;
A person who is near of this meteorological station;
A meteorological operator whose task is to answer the questions of this person.
A person asks a meteorological operator: “What will the weather be like in Kiev tomorrow?”. – A meteorological operator replies: “The weather forecast in Kiev for tomorrow feels like: daytime temperature + 5℃, nighttime temperature + 1℃, moderate north east wind with a speed of 6 m/s and air humidity would be observed…”
A person asks a meteorological operator: “Who is answering me?” and receives such an answer: – “A meteorological operator …”
The virtual experiment № 2.
The participants of this experiment are:
A meteorological station a person doesn’t observe;
A person who can be anywhere in the world;
The «SIRI» app (a voice assistant is a specially designed program with a defined level of artificial intellect. The Apple company developed it for their mobile devices such as iPhone). This app can control a voice of a person, give answers to his questions in one of the languages available for it. However, the answer will always contain terms and concepts understandable for a person).
The “Weather” app is a specially designed program with a defined level of artificial intellect. It can receive information from the weather stations anywhere in the world without having to contact their operators. When working, it is also able to use voice functions of the SIRI application).
A person asks the SIRI app uploading into iPhone: “What will the weather be like in Kiev tomorrow?”. The «SIRI» app using its voice abilities and abilities of the Weather app, replies: “The weather forecast in Kiev for tomorrow feels like: daytime temperature + 5℃, nighttime temperature + 1℃, moderate north east wind with a speed of 6 m/s and air humidity would be observed…”
A person asks a meteorological operator: “Who is answering me?” and receives such an answer: «SIRI».Continue reading →
A molecule, according to our hypothesis, is an infinitely complex matter. Creatures known to us – as well as those who supposedly live close to suns and on planets – are composed or built from molecules of different types (oxygen, hydrogen, iron, carbon, etc.). Let’s look back to the past and imagine the Universe billions of decillions – or as many as you like – years ago. At that time molecules were less complex, and there were other planets, other suns and other creatures, composed from these more simple molecules. When forming chemical compounds, they emitted light of other kind, which now is invisible for us; it couldn’t be perceived by our organs of sight because the size of ether waves was smaller at that time and ether environment was different – thinner and more resilient. Creatures of those days were less dense but they also were subject to evolution, they also struggled for existence; they also became – ages ago – the acme of perfection, and they became immortal rulers of the world, they achieved what humans still are to achieve and what space dwellers akin to us have already achieved, and they obtained bliss.
Could they manage to survive up to now and are they living among us invisible? Or maybe they decomposed, giving birth to creatures of our visible world?
This issue is rather difficult to tackle. A philosopher would say that the origin of matter is common; however, matter, undergoing continuous and, as it seems, simultaneous evolution, exists it in the great number of kinds: from dense metals to ether, which is trillions of times less dense.
If the previous types of unorganized matter somehow managed to preserve, having no intelligence, all the more reason sentient beings could preserve.
Bacteria and the other Protista have existed for ages, but they gave birth to other beings, including humans. But do invisible suns, planets and creatures surround us, like bacteria, which only now humans are able to see? Where do these higher ones live?
Do they inhabit only certain corners of Universe or are they dissipated everywhere and can live wherever they want? What are their properties? Do they have any connections with currently existing creatures? Do they represent the beginning of life for humans and celestial creatures – related to them, although perfect? Or do they represent their soul (or its part)? Do they for some purpose possess animals or humans at conception? Odd questions with no answers. All the same, let’s try to answer the last question, i.e. do these creatures of the past serve as a foundation of a man, do they enter his body at birth and do they represent his soul with its properties?
But, firstly, all properties of a man’s body and soul find explanation in morphology of his body and brain. And even if not all of them are explained yet, we can hope that in future they will be.
Secondly, if these beings enliven a man, it is difficult to deny the same to an animal. At conception all of them must be inhabited by spirits from earlier days. It looks rather odd! Why do they need suffer in animal and human bodies?! And, finally, why then a man or an animal does not become perfect (in its way) immediately, if a spirit inhabits him at birth? Why a baby is not so clever, as an adult? Why do we acquire intelligence by means of schooling and labor? How does perfection of spirit always depend on the type of animals and perfection of their organs? (To explain this, there is a lousy hypothesis about prestabilism). Why does with destruction of organs spirit weaken as well? Why a higher spirit doesn’t take possession of some fly and turn it into Newton?
Here we would like to begin from the beginning, i.e., from elements of the Universe. Who is an immortal citizen of space? It is its atom. An atom – not the one known in science, but a true one – an indivisible particle, matter. Is there any of such? Hardly so. Let’s refer to scientific facts. All so-called atoms (92 items) are composed of hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is complex. But there is also aether. It consists of extremely small particles. It is possible that all matter, i.e. all other atoms, consists of them.
A true atom is unknown. One thing is observed: the simpler the atom, the more difficult its disintegration is. The most massive atoms decay in thousands of years and even less. Less massive ones – in billions of years. Even more common – in billions, trillions and decillions of years. Particles of hydrogen and aether may be of this kind.
Matter is a carrier of sense, since there is nothing but matter. What then we can attribute a feeling to? Where the matter is, where the atom is, there is a feeling. Atom or a part of it can be called primal (primitive), or simple, spirit, but, as we have seen, each atom is a composition of the simplest. Destiny of an unknown simplest one depends on participation of the atoms known to science.*
There are as many true atoms, as there are primal spirits. A primal spirit wanders through the universe and forms unions. We recognize only unions in the world. Life and feeling of an atom depends on the complexity of the union, which it is in: the more complex the union is, the more complex the activity and feeling of the atom. Here is a rough representation of gradually increasing complexity of an atom’s life.