Three different families bought the same type of a TV. These identical TVs were sold in one and the same store and produced at the same enterprise… But the first family constantly watch the news broadcasts, the second family prefers various TV series, and the third one is a fond of sports programs. There is nothing to be surprised about. Why? Because in every family there is a primary User of the device purchased (a TV set in this case) and exactly this person determines its usage policy. As a rule, this TV was bought to satisfy the wishes of this particular User…
The same situation is with all other devices…
In fact, the term “device” always denotes some object (device, mechanism, construction, installation …) human beings have created for their own needs to perform strictly defined functions (personal computer, mobile phone, TV, radio, refrigerator, air conditioner, cookstove, car…)
For example, a personal computer (PC). Computers are called “personal” just because they are used by certain “persons”, i.e. “Users”. As a rule, each personal computer has one user. Each user is free to use his personal computer in his own discretion: to play computer games, to develop any innovative facilities, to constantly surf the social networks, etc.
What is an obvious conclusion we can arrive at after the results of this thought experiment?
Using a lot of identical devices, will never help different people to create the same information, since it is called “personal information” for a reason, that is, Users (“persons”) create it as well as possess it. And each user produces his own “personal information”, using the certain devices he prefers.
The same situation is with people…
Despite the similar functionality of the human bodies as well as the possibility to duplicate (clone, copy) their genetically identical material bodies, they all have and will always possess different memory, different consciousness, different character, different knowledge, different experience… Why is it so? One of the possible variants is that various people just have various Users.
The material body just provides “own” User with the opportunity to cognize “our” World and perform certain actions in it. It is he (“our” User) who feels anxious, thinks, dwells on something, enjoys… And each reader can guess what is the name of “his” User — it’s your Personality.
There are good reasons why such terms as a person that denotes the integrity of a human being (from the Latin persona) and a personality denoting social and psychological aspects of a human being (from the Latin personalitas) have the same deep root persona.
The modern researchers are actively discussing such concepts as “intellect”, “intelligence”, “artificial intelligence”, “natural intelligence”, “Human intelligence“, etc., but up to this day no one has ever offered an approach to measuring the scale of intelligence of various beings. This article is the first attempt to move in this direction.
I want to pay your attention that there is a slight difference between my terms and the modern scientific ones. From my point of view, it allows us to see cognitive process in a more realistic light …
The MIND is a set of «thinking» abilities of the Brain (a set of Brain Powers), which enable the Body and the Personality of a Human Being to effectively process information during cognition, i.e.:
the maximum amount of data processed;
the maximum data processing speed;
a variety of processed data;
a variety of the methods of information input for further processing;
a variety of the methods of information output after it has been processed;
This set of abilities we call as “capacities of thinking”. People who are able to effectively think, have always been called “thinkers”.
MIND is the objective characteristic (a set of parameters) of an object, which can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
Many objects are able to independently systematize (generalize, comprehend) information about the outside world during cognition. Such information (systematized knowledge) is called «consciousness» of objects, and objects themselves are called «conscious».
CONSCIOUSNESS is the objective characteristic (parameter) of an object. Consciousness can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
But there are objects that we call «creatures». They are able both to systematize information about the outside World and to use their «experience and knowledge» (their consciousness) in their activities.
REASON is the integral ability of Beings to use the accumulated «experience and knowledge» in their activities; it is this ability that distinguishes them from objects which are simply conscious. If the Beings have “reason”, they will possess abilities to analyze, abstract, generalize, logically think …
That is why «creatures» at all times were called “reasonable“, that is experienced, knowledgeable. And their activity was also considered to be “reasonable“.
INTELLIGENCE is a property of an object that characterizes its ability to cognize the World (in the broadest sense of this word) by a heuristic method based on the object’s:
MIND; «thinking» abilities;
CONSCIOUSNESS; the volume of systematized information about the world (the volume of accumulated experience and knowledge):
REASON; ability to fully or partly use consciousness in certain activities.
INTELLECTUAL is the characteristic of a Being with excellent «cogitative» («thinking») abilities, great knowledge and personal experience, which ultimately allows him to take more correct decisions in his activity.
But intellect can also be expressed mathematically as a variable that changes in time and depends on three main variable functions:
Intelligence (t) = f(«thinking» abilities, t) * f(The volume of systematized information or the volume of Consciousness, t) * f(The amount of consciousness used for activities or Reason, t)
I(t) = f(TA, t) * f(C, t) * f(M, t)
I = Intelligence TA = «Thinking» Abilities C = Volume of Consciousness or Volume of Systematized Information M = The Мind or a part of Consciousness used for performing one’s activity t = time
Thus, «intelligence» is the variable in time objective characteristic (parameter) of an object; it can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.
P.S. Of course, everything I’ve mentioned above is a very simplified model for defining “intelligence” of any Being. But this model really works. Its effectiveness differs it from all the rest models existing nowadays.
Modern scientists claim that they have already determined the directions that will enable humanity to make a breakthrough into its radiant future: nanomaterials, smart houses, travelling to other planets, cloning various creatures, storing information in DNA-like media, artificial intelligence, robots and biorobots, studying ocean depths and the depths of Space…
I dare say that most of the state-of-the-art technologies created today are so significant that their creators may erroneously believe that it is the development of these technologies that will allow their owners to “rule ‘Our’ World” in the nearest future.
But, from my point of view (and, unfortunately, not only mine), modern mankind currently has no future. All new technologies will only lead the modern mankind to collapse. The more revolutionary the new technology is, the faster it leads the modern humanity to the end.
It is not because these technologies are harmful, but solely because people use the fruits of any technological revolution primarily for such purposes as arms race, seizures of power, turning people into ‘zombies’, etc.
Invention of a wheel and a knife proved to be a much less dangerous technology for humans than creation of new viruses and bacteria, climate and chemical weapons over the past 100 years. And most importantly, the inventors (creators) of these technologies are not able to prevent such use in any way.
Many modern researchers realize the current situation and consider it to be hopeless so far, since up to the present there have not been found any acceptable solutions for mankind’s exit from its “nosedive” to death…
While investigating prospects for development of the mankind, I carried out many imaginary experiments, and as a result I “saw” the following main causes of this problem:
Cause #1: Most people consider themselves “the center of the Earth”, kind of “ kings of Nature” and don’t realize their true place in the hierarchy of the Universe. These earthlings honestly believe that they are at the top of the “food chain” and they can do whatever they want with complete impunity throughout their short life on the planet Earth.
Cause #2: People haven’t yet realized that a human being actually is a kind of an essence of field nature, which is “dressed” in a material body. This body is only a part of a human being, and it’s far from being the most essential one.
The result obtained in this experiment clearly showed thatno technological improvements of human bodies and the environment of these bodies are able to change the people’s attitude towards the Nature (the Universe) and to all its inhabitants, including their own species…
That is why, it is not the body of a person that should be “altered” – it is, first of all, people’s worldview, way of thinking, meaning of their lives. Change of the outlook will automatically lead to replacement of current dominant values (money, power, fame…) with new ones, such as harmonious relations with the objects of the Universe and with all its inhabitants. These new values will determine behavior of people and their social relations in the long run. On this basis, the direction of the modern mankind’s development will change automatically.
“You are looking into the interlocutor’s eyes and realize that a bag of meat and bones cannot radiate an intelligent look. You see the flesh, but you communicate with an invisible spiritual essence.”Yuri Larichev, writer and philosopher
Obtaining a strictly scientific proof of immortality of a human Personality and its consciousness and disclosing it to the general public (by means of demonstrating so-called ‘miracles’) should become the cornerstone of this crucial task.
At present, due to the conservatism of the official science, even studies in these areas are considered absurd, and any publications on such topics in scientific journals are kind of a taboo and are considered “undesirable”…
“The consciousness, which is already transforming and organizing a hefty chunk of “our” solar system, is denied objective existence only because traditional science doesn’t know how to approach it, didn’t create an appropriate conceptual apparatus and scientific tools for its study, and it is in no hurry to correct these mistakes and to overcome the arising difficulties.”George Somov, “Matter of Consciousness & Consciousness of Matter (Материя Сознания и Сознание Материи)“
This situation has led to the fact that even ‘crazy investors’ “do not see the advisability” of investments in this field. Investing in human development has become completely unprofitable, as the payback period can reach 30-60 years. Investors don’t realize that they themselves are blocking the most promising areas of investment in the history of “modern mankind”.
“If there is no immortality, then neither is the remorality: all is permitted.”Vladimir Bekhterev, “Immortality From the Scientific Point of View”
“It sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly and simply arranged; the only difficulty was, that she had not the smallest idea how to set about it…”Lewis Carroll, “Alice in Wonderland”
In this article, the author gives definitions of such notions as consciousness, sub-consciousness, being and entity for any biological or non-biological objects. He also considers these notions in relation to computer systems. Different approaches to objective estimation of various objects’ consciousnesses are also suggested. Besides, the writer offers the way to determine the exact point when a conscious object turns into a being or an entity.
Disputes over the interpretation of such notions as consciousness, subconsciousness and a being have been taking place throughout the history of the so-called modern humankind and provoke people’s interest up to this day. Nowadays these debates have reached their climax.
Scientists from various research centers actively develop different structures (e.g. devices, robots, mechanisms, and so on), which, as they claim, possess artificial intelligence.
So, now – like never before – there is a need to formulate unified terminology and related nomenclature, which will be used within various areas of research, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, biocybernetics, computer systems, etc. It will help modern researchers to find a common language, which, in its turn, will contribute toward development of the technologies that will benefit the whole humankind.
I think that the future of the modern humankind is tightly intertwined with answers to such questions as “What are consciousness and subconsciousness?”, “What is a Being?”
This paper is devoted to finding answers to these questions.
2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
“There is a conceptual gap between science, which stands for objective measurement and the conclusions we can draw thereby, and consciousness, which is a synonym for subjective experience. We obviously cannot simply ask an entity in question, “Are you conscious?” If we look inside its “head,” biological or otherwise, to ascertain that, then we would have to make philosophical assumptions in determining what it is that we are looking for. The question as to whether or not an entity is conscious is therefore not a scientific one. Based on this, some observers go on to question whether consciousness itself has any basis in reality.” Ray Kurzweil
“Proposals have been regularly presented that purport to be scientific theories linking consciousness to some measurable physical attribute — what Searle refers to as the “mechanism for causing consciousness.”  Ray Kurzweil
“As British psychologist and writer Stuart Sutherland (1927–1998) wrote in the International Dictionary of Psychology, “Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon; it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved.”  Ray Kurzweil