Intelligence. How is it measured?

The modern researchers are actively discussing such concepts as “intellect”, “intelligence”, “artificial intelligence”, “natural intelligence”, “Human intelligence“, etc., but up to this day no one has ever offered an approach to measuring the scale of intelligence of various beings. This article is the first attempt to move in this direction.

I want to pay your attention that there is a slight difference between my terms and the modern scientific ones. From my point of view, it allows us to see cognitive process in a more realistic light …

The MIND is a set of «thinking» abilities of the Brain (a set of Brain Powers), which enable the Body and the Personality of a Human Being to effectively process information during cognition, i.e.:

  • the maximum amount of data processed;
  • the maximum data processing speed;
  • a variety of processed data;
  • a variety of the methods of information input for further processing;
  • a variety of the methods of information output after it has been processed;
  • etc.

This set of abilities we call as “capacities of thinking”.  People who are able to effectively think, have always been called “thinkers”.

MIND is the objective characteristic (a set of parameters) of an object, which can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.

Many objects are able to independently systematize (generalize, comprehend) information about the outside world during cognition. Such information (systematized knowledge) is called «consciousness» of objects, and objects themselves are called «conscious».


CONSCIOUSNESS is the objective characteristic (parameter) of an object. Consciousness can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.

But there are objects that we call «creatures». They are able both to systematize information about the outside World and to use their «experience and knowledge» (their consciousness) in their activities.


REASON is the integral ability of Beings to use the accumulated «experience and knowledge» in their activities; it is this ability that distinguishes them from objects which are simply conscious. If the Beings have “reason”, they will possess abilities to analyze, abstract, generalize, logically think …

That is why «creatures» at all times were called “reasonable“, that is experienced, knowledgeable. And their activity was also considered to be “reasonable“.


INTELLIGENCE  is a property of an object that characterizes its ability to cognize the World (in the broadest sense of this word) by a heuristic method based on the object’s:

  • MIND; «thinking» abilities;
  • CONSCIOUSNESS; the volume of systematized information about the world (the volume of accumulated experience and knowledge):
  • REASON; ability to fully or partly use consciousness in certain activities.

INTELLECTUAL is the characteristic of a Being with excellent «cogitative» («thinking») abilities, great knowledge and personal experience, which ultimately allows him to take more correct decisions in his activity.

But intellect can also be expressed mathematically as a variable that changes in time and depends on three main variable functions:

Intelligence (t) = f(«thinking» abilities, t) * f(The volume of systematized information or the volume of Consciousness, t) * f(The amount of consciousness used for activities or Reason, t)

I(t) = f(TA, t) * f(C, t) * f(M, t)

I = Intelligence
TA = «Thinking» Abilities
C = Volume of Consciousness or Volume of Systematized Information
M = The Мind or a part of Consciousness used for performing one’s activity
t = time

Thus, «intelligence» is the variable in time objective characteristic (parameter) of an object; it can be accurately measured, using the appropriate techniques.

Of course, everything I’ve mentioned above is a very simplified model for defining “intelligence” of any Being. But this model really works. Its effectiveness differs it from all the rest models existing nowadays.

The methods to complete creative tasks, bypassing the standard algorithms of brain functioning

One can imagine a typical thinking process of the human being as a virtual funnel, the walls of which represent his consciousness (all systematized knowledge and experience), and water running along the inner walls of this funnel will represent a thinking process.

 The cores of a thinking process during cognition of the World (in the broadest sense of this word) are one`s mind (brainpower) and reason (abilities to use accumulated ‘knowledge and experience’ in one’s activity). But after all, a person who thinks about something and who uses during thinking only own consciousness will never be able to complete creative tasks, since this process already requires abilities that are beyond his personal experience and knowledge, i.e. beyond his ‘funnel’, beyond his consciousness.

The standard algorithm of the brain functioning that is conventionally called “water logic” presupposes during thinking a constant interaction of one`s mind, reason and consciousness. The term “water logic” means that “water” running along the inner walls of a funnel will always fall into one and the same lower part of it in spite of various other ways for running. In other words, using only own experience and knowledge will always lead to one and the same result in thinking process in the furtherance of any tasks.

There are good reasons why people say that a well-posed question is already half an answer! To pose a question, people use their own accumulated knowledge and experience. But it isn`t enough for creative questions and for creative answers as well.

What are necessary to do for blustering way out of this virtual funnel, i.e. for finding another creative decision?

Many years ago, the theory of solving inventive problems and theory of the development of technical systems were developed exactly for these purposes. The author of these systems is Heinrich Saulovich Altshuller, a science fiction writer, scientist and inventor. These theories demonstrated for the first time that people can develop their inventive abilities, taking into account inventive experience of numerous predecessors, which was tabulated by Henrik Saulowicz on the ‘problem — solving method’ principle. This table also helped many inventors to bluster way out of their ‘funnels’, i.e. to bluster way out of using only their personal experience and knowledge.

What can an inventor do if the tables of Altshuller are not suitable for him, since using them is already impossible to solve inventive tasks in many new fields such as microbiology, quantum physics, research of artificial intelligence, etc.?

In this case, researchers can use the author`s hardware-software Fable Search Engine complex, the functioning principle of which was previously described in one of the articles of this blog. This complex is intended to assist the modern inventors in solving the creative tasks, using another knowledge that, as a rule, isn`t a part of their own consciousnesses (knowledge and experience they have accumulated).

Based on the previously developed functioning principle, the author created Fable Search Engine (FSE), which allows everyone to check this theory and to assure himself of its 100% working efficiency. The functioning principle of FSE is quite simple, but everyone should personally think about the main interaction principles between this engine and the human beings` Personalities. Using this approach, the principles of the Universe will not be defied.

Use your brain, your intelligence… put your brain to good use… think, reckon up in your head, ponder, contemplate, reason for a while, think over … and you will definitely understand the functioning principle of Fable Search Engine. If you don`t fully understand the functioning principle of FSE, then read this article once again from the very beginning.

Good luck!

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Perception vs Receptivity vs Manifestation

COGNITION is a complex of processes, procedures and methods of acquisition of knowledge about phenomena and regularities of the objective World. A lot of special disciplines such as cognitive psychology, scientific methodology, history of science, Scientology, sociology of knowledge, etc. investigate cognition. However, most of these sciences study cognition, considering only certain aspects of it. On the whole, knowledge remains a special subject of philosophy study.

Let’s try to consider the COGNITION from another point of view – the point of view of the author of this article.

PERCEPTION (from Latin ‘perceptio’) is the simplest kind of cognition during which realizes ‘sensation’ of the World (in the broadest sense of this word). The discovery and differentiation processes take place in receptors of the body (flesh) and usually fall into perception. Theoretically, perception is the prerogative of any objects having a body (flesh).

RECEPTIVITY is more complicated kind of cognition during which one reflects earlier received perceptions (sensations) as objects, processes, phenomena. In a such way one formulates his own subjective understanding of the World. The identification and recognition (categorization) processes usually fall into receptivity. Theoretically, receptivity is the prerogative only of conscious objects.

 MANIFESTATION is the most pervasive kind of cognition during which one organizes perceptions one has received earlier into interdependent strings. These strings help someone to “see” cause-and-effect relations of the earlier perceived processes and phenomena of ‘our’ Universe. The thinking (speculation, using one’s brain help someone to use systematized information in his/her activity) usually fall into manifestation. Theoretically, manifestation is the prerogative of conscious Beings and Entities (they use consciousness in their activity, i.e. information they have systematized during cognition).


 Mental experiment №1. A fisherman at the pond.

The fishing rod with its line, buoy and hook can be considered as a peculiar device, “special equipment for the elongation of a fisherman hand” or “elongate arm prosthesis” with the help of which he can fish more successfully. This fisherman baited and tested the waters. Firstly, the fish (the observer in our case) senses a jig (perception), its brain reflected this jig on the hood as its favorite food (receptivity). But fish, as a rule, cannot think about what can be beyond this jig. It cannot realize that there is a fisherman, on whose rod this jig is fixed. Exactly this realization is a pervasive manifestation.


Mental experiment №2: A human being cognizes the World.

It is impossible to precisely identify a human being if basing only on his/her body parameters. A mere plastic operation and you will not recognize a human being you knew before. That’s why to solve this case a complex of BODY and PERSONALITY parameters are used, thanks to which every human being become an INDIVIDUUM. Individuum is the conventional name of a human being who possesses individuality, i.e. unique BODY and unique PERSONALITY.

When people assert that they know this “human” (to be more precise, a human being) it means that they identify this human being according to two interrelated components:

  • They know how the BODY of a human being in which the ENTITY of a human being incarnated looks like;
  • They know the PERSONALITY of this human being, which they associate with this body as a complex of his/her stable traits.

If only one of the mentioned above items will be changed, people will not recognize this human being (“human”).

It can happen if:

  • the BODY is changed (plastic operation, body injury, etc.);
  • the PERSONALITY of a human being is changed, by any reason the stable traits of the PERSONALITY change (a human being acquires new knowledge and aptitudes) or a human being have wasted his/her knowledge and aptitudes (which he/she had before).

Based on the mentioned above material, one can assert that people identify each other according to two interrelated components that are BODY and PERSONALITY of a human being.

But if the BODY is already formed during the birth, i.e. during child-bearing, then the moment when the PERSONALITY formation is unknown to many people.

The moment of the human being PERSONALITY formation is the moment of the “Self” (the ENTITY of a human being) incarnation into the BODY of a human being. This process is called CREATION (co-creation), because parents or partners participate in the creation of a human being. The completely different object under the conventional “SELF” or the ENTITY of a human being name deals with the creation of the PERSONALITY of a human being.

Here is the most interesting thing. People, as a rule, cannot “see” the ENTITY of a human being or their “Selves”, that’s why they resemble a fish the author described in the mentioned above mental experiment. But human beings differ from fishes by their ability to perform a pervasive king of cognition that is manifestation. With the help of thinking (speculation, using one’s brain) some PERSONALITIES of human beings recognize not only “themselves”, but also their place in the Universe…


© 2017, Helen Zhoglo, translation into English


Philosophy of Consciousness

In this article, the author gives definitions of such notions as consciousness, sub-consciousness, being and entity for any biological or non-biological objects. He also considers these notions in relation to computer systems. Different approaches to objective estimation of various objects’ consciousnesses are also suggested. Besides, the writer offers the way to determine the exact point when a conscious object turns into a being or an entity.

Additional Key Words and Phrases: Consciousness; Subconsciousness; Superconsciousness; Knowing; Cognition; Awareness; Manifestation; Body; Organism; Being; Creature; Entity; Evolution; Human; Life; Life Cycle; AI; Artificial Intelligence; Computer; Computer Program; Operation System; Application; Software; Computer Science; Information; Information Carrier, Information Storage; Data; Alphabet; ABC; Word; Sentence; Phrase; Language; Concept; Thought; Brain; Thinking; Conceptual Thinking;



Disputes over the interpretation of such notions as consciousness, subconsciousness and a being have been taking place throughout the history of the so-called modern humankind and provoke people’s interest up to this day. Nowadays these debates have reached their climax.

Scientists from various research centers actively develop different structures (e.g. devices, robots, mechanisms, and so on), which, as they claim, possess artificial intelligence.

So, now – like never before – there is a need to formulate unified terminology and related nomenclature, which will be used within various areas of research, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, biocybernetics, computer systems, etc. It will help modern researchers to find a common language, which, in its turn, will contribute toward development of the technologies that will benefit the whole humankind.

I think that the future of the modern humankind is tightly intertwined with answers to such questions as “What are consciousness and subconsciousness?”, “What is a Being?”

This paper is devoted to finding answers to these questions.



“There is a conceptual gap between science, which stands for objective measurement and the conclusions we can draw thereby, and consciousness, which is a synonym for subjective experience. We obviously cannot simply ask an entity in question, “Are you conscious?” If we look inside its “head,” biological or otherwise, to ascertain that, then we would have to make philosophical assumptions in determining what it is that we are looking for. The question as to whether or not an entity is conscious is therefore not a scientific one. Based on this, some observers go on to question whether consciousness itself has any basis in reality.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

“Proposals have been regularly presented that purport to be scientific theories linking consciousness to some measurable physical attribute — what Searle refers to as the “mechanism for causing consciousness.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

 “As British psychologist and writer Stuart Sutherland (1927–1998) wrote in the International Dictionary of Psychology, “Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon; it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

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