Philosophy of Consciousness

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In this article, the author gives definitions of such notions as consciousness, sub-consciousness, being and entity for any biological or non-biological objects. He also considers these notions in relation to computer systems. Different approaches to objective estimation of various objects’ consciousnesses are also suggested. Besides, the writer offers the way to determine the exact point when a conscious object turns into a being or an entity.

Additional Key Words and Phrases: Consciousness; Subconsciousness; Superconsciousness; Knowing; Cognition; Awareness; Manifestation; Body; Organism; Being; Creature; Entity; Evolution; Human; Life; Life Cycle; AI; Artificial Intelligence; Computer; Computer Program; Operation System; Application; Software; Computer Science; Information; Information Carrier, Information Storage; Data; Alphabet; ABC; Word; Sentence; Phrase; Language; Concept; Thought; Brain; Thinking; Conceptual Thinking;

 

1. INTRODUCTION

Disputes over the interpretation of such notions as consciousness, subconsciousness and a being have been taking place throughout the history of the so-called modern humankind and provoke people’s interest up to this day. Nowadays these debates have reached their climax.

Scientists from various research centers actively develop different structures (e.g. devices, robots, mechanisms, and so on), which, as they claim, possess artificial intelligence.

So, now – like never before – there is a need to formulate unified terminology and related nomenclature, which will be used within various areas of research, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, biocybernetics, computer systems, etc. It will help modern researchers to find a common language, which, in its turn, will contribute toward development of the technologies that will benefit the whole humankind.

I think that the future of the modern humankind is tightly intertwined with answers to such questions as “What are consciousness and subconsciousness?”, “What is a Being?”

This paper is devoted to finding answers to these questions.

 

2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

“There is a conceptual gap between science, which stands for objective measurement and the conclusions we can draw thereby, and consciousness, which is a synonym for subjective experience. We obviously cannot simply ask an entity in question, “Are you conscious?” If we look inside its “head,” biological or otherwise, to ascertain that, then we would have to make philosophical assumptions in determining what it is that we are looking for. The question as to whether or not an entity is conscious is therefore not a scientific one. Based on this, some observers go on to question whether consciousness itself has any basis in reality.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

“Proposals have been regularly presented that purport to be scientific theories linking consciousness to some measurable physical attribute — what Searle refers to as the “mechanism for causing consciousness.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

 “As British psychologist and writer Stuart Sutherland (1927–1998) wrote in the International Dictionary of Psychology, “Consciousness is a fascinating but elusive phenomenon; it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved.” [1] Ray Kurzweil

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Citizens of the Universe. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. 1933

tsiolkovsky_smileHere we would like to begin from the beginning, i.e., from elements of the Universe. Who is an immortal citizen of space? It is its atom. An atom – not the one known in science, but a true one – an indivisible particle, matter. Is there any of such? Hardly so. Let’s refer to scientific facts. All so-called atoms (92 items) are composed of hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is complex. But there is also aether. It consists of extremely small particles. It is possible that all matter, i.e. all other atoms, consists of them.

A true atom is unknown. One thing is observed: the simpler the atom, the more difficult its disintegration is. The most massive atoms decay in thousands of years and even less. Less massive ones – in billions of years. Even more common – in billions, trillions and decillions of years. Particles of hydrogen and aether may be of this kind.

Matter is a carrier of sense, since there is nothing but matter. What then we can attribute a feeling to? Where the matter is, where the atom is, there is a feeling. Atom or a part of it can be called primal (primitive), or simple, spirit, but, as we have seen, each atom is a composition of the simplest. Destiny of an unknown simplest one depends on participation of the atoms known to science.*

There are as many true atoms, as there are primal spirits. A primal spirit wanders through the universe and forms unions. We recognize only unions in the world.  Life and feeling of an atom depends on the complexity of the union, which it is in: the more complex the union is, the more complex the activity and feeling of the atom. Here is a rough representation of gradually increasing complexity of an atom’s life.

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